Annotated Bibliographhies


This page incorporates my sources my project. Each source is listed in APA format followed by a brief qualification of each author and a summary of the topic or thesis of the source.  It also includes evidence, who source was targeted, and who else would find it useful. The last paragraph contains information on how I found the source and how it relates to my artifact. It also describes why or why not this source would be useful for my research.

Annotated Bibliography for the NAMES project Gil Scott-Heron AIDS Panel

Source One

McClure, D. (2016). Who Will Survive In America: Gil Scott Heron, the Black Radical Tradition, and the Critique of Neoliberalism. In Michael Mitchell & David Covin   (Ed.), Broadening the Contours in the Study of Black Politics (pp. 3- 20). New York, NY: Transaction Publishers

  • Daniel Robert McClure, a hisrory professor at California State University, Fullerton, asserts that “Gil Scott-Heron is an important literary figure from the Black radical tradition, as his records provide an important extension of the legacies of Black Power and the Black Arts Movement into the post-civil rights era.” McClure provides over two pages of evidence including books, magazines, newspaper articles, and websites. This evidence comes from primary sources such as Gil Scott-Heron’s work and secondary sources such as Business Week. McClure’s purpose in writing this article is to provide information and inspire thought on politics in the lives of African Americans, in this case Gil Scott-Heron. The audience McClure intended is for students, professors, and others who are interested in or involved in the attainment in knowledge regarding African American politics. This information can also be useful to musicians and artists because of the background of Gil Scott, or one who is interested  in the history and the progression of racism civil rights.
  • This source was provided by my research question “Gil Scott-Heron’s life as an activist using Google Scholar. This source provides a lot of information with a strong focus on the specific contributions of Gil-Scott-Heron’s work to the African American community. In one sentence that links to my thesis statement, McMclure states that, “As the 1970’s progressed, he embraced a Pan-African sensibility, moving toward visualizing a global set of oppressions borne of modernity’s processes and highlighting the continued connection between the transnational fates of Black People.” This sentence is describing how GSH’s work changed over the years and embraced a new light shining on the struggles of the African American people. It provides much information about his complete life, from his early years to his death. However, it does not provide a personal involvement about his battle with AIDS.. It does have many quotes from his most popular work that is included in a picture inside of my artifact. This source is great for broad information and links my artifact to the greater African American community with what Gil Scott Heron has done to increase awareness for his people throughout his life.
Broadening the Contours in the Study of Black Politics Cover

Source 2

Baram, M. (2014). Gil Scott-Heron : pieces of a man. New York : St. Martin’s Press, 2014.

  • Marcus Baram has over 20 years of experience in journalism as an editor and reporter including but not limited to: Huffington Post, ABC News, Wall Street Journal, New York Observer, and New York Daily News, He is currently the senior news editor of Fast Company. This biography in Gil Scott-Heron involved over 200 interviews and two years of reporting and research, was published by St. Martin’s Press in the fall of 2014. Awards include The New Yorker‘s notable books for November 2014 and was excerpted in Vanity Fair, Newsweek, the New York Daily News, and The Believer. In this book Marcus Baram applies a eye opening, sensitive, and personal view to the legacy and life of Gil Scott-Heron. He offers evidence from interviews of people who knew Gil Scott, news articles, books, and websites. The authors intention of this book were to give a definitive account of Gil Scott-Heron’s life and legacy. This text would be targeted towards fans of music or Gil Scott-Heron and who are interested in his story. The text was aimed to inspire others through reading about the struggles and woes of his life and seeing the impact he still made through it all. Other people who might find this information useful would be people studying music and the people who inspired change in the way music is used today.
  • I found this book by searching the GSU library for “How was Gil Scott-Heron politically involved. This source provides a more personal insight into Gil Scott-Heron’s life including his struggle with AIDS and poverty. It provides a firsthand view into Scott-Heron’s life as told by him to the author. With over 10 years of research and evidence this book is the perfect source to answer my research questions. Overall, this book has a purposefully poignant point of view that provides complex feelings and thoughts on the life of this legend. This  book will help me link the lives of the AIDS community to the lives of African American activists.
Pieces of a Man Cover

Source 3

Morrison, G & Quan, D. (2013, May). Poet, musician Gil Scott-Heron dies. CNN.

  • Greg Morrison has experience as a executive producer, editor, reporter and producer. Some companies include CNN, WXIA, BET, and NBC. Denise Quan has been a entertainment journalist and producer, with over 18 years of experience at CNN. This article details and informs readers of the death of Gil Scott-Heron and a brief overview of his life. This article only offers evidence in the form of an quote from what appears to be an interview. The authors want to shift the attention to Gil-Scott-Heron’s career and life before his untimely death. The specific audience for this article is readers of CNN entertainment and followers of the music world. Other people who might find this article useful are fans of hip-hop and rap due to the mention of Gil Scott-Heron’s music in Kanye West and Common’s music. His song “No Knock”  was used in Common’s song “Universal Mind Control”. Another song, “Comment #1”, was used in Kanye’s song “Who Will Survive in America”;and those are just two examples. Other people who would find this article interesting and useful would be historians who are researching events that changed civil rights and deaths of big activists such as Martin Luther King Jr.
  • This article relates to my artifact because of the mention of his revolution to having contracted HIV after his battles with drugs to a CNN reporter. I found it by using my research question “Who is Gil Scott=Heron”. This article will not help connect my panel to the broader issue of the invisibility of African Americans with AIDS or help further research because go the lack of information, It only provides highlights of his career and life but does offer some information that I did not know such as that he is known as the “godfather of rap”, had Kanye sample his music, and that he had drug issues, and he was incarcerated.
CNN Auricle on Gil Scott-Heron

Source 4

Tyler-Ameen,D. (2011,May). Gil Scott-Heron, Poet And Musician, Has Died. National Public Radio.

  • Daoud Tyler-Ameen is a writer for NPR and also plays the drum and makes music. This article is similar to the previous CNN article but with a with a more detailed focus on his music. The article offers evidence in the form of a Youtube video of “The Revolution Will Not Be Televised”. It also just merely wishes to inform readers of NPR of Gil Scott-Heron’s death. Other people who would find this article useful would be other artists and music fans.
  • This article came from my previous research question of “Who is Gil Scott-Heron”.  It relates to my article because of the involvement with music and the reference to the “Revolution Will Not Be Televised” picture in the panel. It does not mention; however, the involvement of Gil Scott-Heron with political activities. It also does not have as much information as my first two sources. I would most likely not rely on this source for the majority of my research.
The News Article from NPR

Source 5

Greene,A. (2011,May) Gil Scott-Heron, Revolutionary Poet and Musician, Dead at 62. Rollingstone.

  • Andy Greene is a writer for Rollingstone who has written around 10 well documented articles for the  company; his article of Scott-Heron’s detailed a music history and who he performed with and when and how GSH had written a book when he was was 20. The article gave multiple interview sources as evidence. The desired readers for this article are music fans of hip-hop and rap. The articles purpose was to inform readers of the death of Gil Scott-Heron and give detail about his life. Like the previous source this article would be useful for people researching music and people who have had a lasting effect in the entertainment industry.
  • This article sheds light on a good perspective of Gil Scott-Heron on how he wanted people to portray his music. In the Andy Greene quoted GSC saying “I just think they made a mistake,” he told The New Yorker last year. He also feels that people misinterpreted “The Revolution Will Not Be Televised” – a biting, spoken-work screed against the mass media and consumerist culture.  “That was satire,” he told The Telegraph in February of 2010.  “People would try and argue that it was this militant message, but just how militant can you really be when you’re saying, ‘The revolution will not make you look five pounds thinner’? My songs were always about the tone of voice rather than the words. A good comic will deliver a line deadpan – they let the audience laugh.” Andy Greene also mentioned another interview where GSC openly smoked crack in front of a writer and was dosing of repeatedly during the interview. This constant drug abuse is how GSC contracted HIV and this information will be used in my final analysis and will be helpful in linking him to the broader community.
Title and page for Rollingstone

For more information about any of he links or to access them directly click here.

Annotated Bibliography Further Research Connecting the NAMES Panel To the Way the African American Population is  Affected By AIDS

Source 1

Kuryla, P. (2016, April). Pan Africanism.

  • Peter Kuryla’s Biography on Brittanica states “Associate Professor, Department of History, Belmont University. His contributions to SAGE Publications’s Encyclopedia of African American Society (2009) formed the basis of his contributions to Britannica”. This source details how “Pan-Africanism is the idea that people of African descent share common interests and should be unified,” and shows that “historically, Pan-Africanism has often taken the shape of a political or cultural movement.” The author gives evidence in the form of links to the words inside of the article, such as a link to the words “Afrocentric Movement” and “Pan-African Congress”.  This source was meant to inform upon the history and meaning of Pan- Africanism which would lead to further research and understanding. The audience intended for this source is readers of the Brittanica Encyclopedia and people who are researching African American history and Pan- Africanism. Other people who might land on this website include people searching about W.E.B. Du Bois and African American progression and movements.
  • This Brittanica source will be really helpful to me because it provide a lot of history on how Pan-Africanism has evolved and how it started. This helps me link my previous sources to the broader topic of African American culture and history. It provides links to key word terms so that I can do even more research. This page helped me to find synonyms to the word “Pan-Afrcanism” and how that word evolved through the time periods. For example “Black Power” is a form of Pan-Africanism because it is a uniting movement for people of African American descent. “Black Lives Matter” is also another form of a Pan-African movement. This source was a great read and will help me to find other sources.

Source 2

Innes, A. (2016, January). 5 Reasons Why HIV Disproportionately Affects Black People. Hivequal.

  • Ashley Innes’s Biography on Hivequal states that she “is the Director of Prevention Programs and Services at AIDS Arms, an HIV/AIDS service organization located in Dallas, Texas.” This article shows how “there are broader concerns that make HIV significantly more difficult to face and overcome in black communities.” This source provides statistical evidence such as information from the U.S. Census,  U.S. Religious Landscape Survey conducted in 2007, and The purpose of this source is to specifically inform and turn attention upon the disadvantages the African American race faces, especially when it comes to serious diseases such as AIDS. The audience intended for this article is people  interested in the relationship between AIDS and African American people. Other people who are researching about or trying to find information on how being the minority or in poverty affects your standard of living would find this article useful. There is a lot of information about how being in he minority reduces your chances of being able to or wanting to get help for diseases such as HIV.
  • This article connects to my panel because it focuses on the African American perspective of being affected by AIDS. Just as Gil Scott-Heron lived a life of drugs, poverty, and discrimination so do much of the African American race who have contracted HIV. This source provides a lot of real information that shows a personal side of African American culture such as homophobic actions towards fellow black people in the church. This source provided a lot of good information even though at first glance I thought it was going to be a very opinionated source because of the first reason and having to click on a next button to go to the next reason.

Source 3

KFF. (2018, February). Black Americans and HIV/AIDS: The Basics.

  • There is no author for this page, it is merely a compilation of facts in a website with the thesis being “Black Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning, and that disparity has deepened over time.” This article uses statistical information provided by the CDC for all of its information and cites them in text and at the end of the article; it formats this information into charts, bar graphs, and sentences. The purpose of this source is to prove that African Americans are the race that is most affected by HIV/AIDS and hopefully get help and attention to this tragedy. The specific audience for this source are people interested in national health issues and HIV/AIDS. These facts are also useful to doctors and fellow people of African American descent who do not know he facts about how our race is affected by HIV/AIDS.
  • This source helps connect my panel to the African American population by providing statistical information on HIV/AIDS and breaking it down into categories such as gay and bisexual men, women, and geography. I did not know that the South accounts for “63% of the new African American cases of HIV”. The state I reside in, “Georgia, is the third largest amount of new black cases with 33,946 accounted for in 2016”. This information will be extremely helpful in showing how overlooked the African American population is when it comes to AIDS.

Source 4

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Among African Americans. Retrieved        from website

  • This article does not have an author as it was published by the CDC, and has information based upon African Americans with AIDS. The thesis states “Blacks/African Americans account for a higher proportion of new HIV diagnoses, those living with HIV, and those who have ever received an AIDS diagnosis, compared to other races/ethnicities”. The evidence included a bibliography to all of the studies done, a chart, and lots of statistical information. The purpose of this page is to inform upon the impact of AIDS on the African American community and show how affected they are by this epidemic. This page is aimed at stopping the spread of HIV and towards African American people to get help and reassurance. Other people who might find this information helpful are people who are interested in fighting the spread of HIV and want to help the CDC.
  • This page offered a very credible source and information that has been more in depth with comparison to my other sources. This page provided a chart that showed how African Americans were affected more than any other race by showing the breakdown between male-male cases and with heterosexual cases; in which African American cases were around over 3,000 more in each category. There was also an astounding fact about deaths which stated “In 2015, 3,379 African Americans died from HIV disease, accounting for 52% of total deaths attributed to the disease that year.” This information makes this page very valuable and and great source.

Source 5

Fullilove, R. (2006, November). African Americans, Health Disparities and HIV/AIDS: Recommendations for Confronting the Epidemic in Black America. National Minority AIDS Council.

  • According to Fullilove EdD “is the Associate Dean for Community and Minority Affairs, Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences and the co-director of the Cities Research Group.” He also served on the Board of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at the Institute of Medicine (IOM) at the National Academy of Sciences from 1995-2001.” This article states that “since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, African Americans have been overrepresented among those living with and dying from AIDS.” This report offers evidence in the form of line graphs, bar graphs, pictographs, surveys, studies, and other reports from the CDC, Kaiser Foundation and more. The purpose of this report “if implemented, will further empower individuals to take personal responsibility for the prevention and spread of HIV/AIDS in the African-American community, even in difficult life situations.” The intended readers for this report are African American people affected by AIDS. Other people who might find this report informative are people who are looking to find information on researching AIDS and how minorities are affected.
  • This report compiles information into one source that is almost all of my other sources put together. It has more of an opinionated style of writing due to the “recommendations” past of the report.  “About one in five (19%) new HIV infections among African Americans is from injection drug use (CDC, 2005).” This is how Gil Scott-Heron contracted HIV, so this will be a very useful point in my final analysis. Overall this page provides lots of meaningful context and will be very helpful.

For more information or to access any of the sources directly click here.